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Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

The clinical effects or symptoms of drug abuse can be established from the charts we have compiled below. Each chart explains how the major classes of abused drugs can be diagnosed simply by looking at the way these drugs are used and abused. The drug groups listed include Amphetamines, Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines, Cannabinoids, Cocaine, Methadone, MDMA-Ecstasy, Opiates, Phencyclidine, and Propoxyphene.

Common Drugs of Abuse Quick Reference Chart

Alcohol

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

Enjoying alcohol in moderation may not be bad for you, it has health benefits that could prolong your life. Overuse of alcohol as an escape route for social, personal or career pressures may result in alcoholism. Abuse of alcohol, or consumption of more alcohol than the body can handle, can lead to liver damage.

DrugAlcohol, ethyl alcohol, ethyl glucuronide
Controlled Substance Schedule
Trade NamesNumerous
Street NamesLiquor, beer, wine
ClassificationDepressant-high, stimulant-low
DependenceHigh
Method of AdministrationSwallowed
Physical AppearanceLiquid
Approximate Detection Time in Urine3 to 80 hours
Clinical Effects or SymptomsAnxiety, euphoria, general discontent, guilt, or loneliness, nausea, vomiting, blackout, dizziness, shakiness, craving, or sweating

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse for AmphetamineAmphetamines

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

Amphetamines are strong central nervous system stimulants with high abuse potential. They produce an initial state of euphoria followed by restlessness, agitation, irritability and sometimes extreme paranoia. Tolerance develops rapidly and although physical dependence has not been proved, psychological dependence is very high. Amphetamines may be used in the treatment for obesity, attention disorder, hyperactivity and narcolepsy, but because of high abuse potential, these compounds are used as a last resort in these treatments.

DrugMethamphetamine, Amphetamine
Controlled Substance ScheduleSchedule II
Trade NamesDesoxyn, Dexedrine, Biphetamine, Adderall
Street NamesUppers, pep pills, bennies, moth, crank, speed, meth, crystal, dexies, hearts, whites, black beauties
ClassificationCentral nervous system stimulants
DependencePossible/high
Method of AdministrationSwallowed or injected
Physical AppearanceCoarse powders, crystals, “chunks,” capsules, or tablets of various sizes and colors
Approximate Detection Time in Urine24 to 48 hours
Clinical Effects or SymptomsPalpitations, tachycardia, hypertension, restlessness, dizziness, insomnia, loss of appetite, and hallucinations

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse BarbituratesBarbiturates

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

There are a variety of these major sedative-hypnotic drugs. However, all are derivatives of barbituric acid.  Depending on the derivation, the particular drug may be long acting as is phenobarbital or short acting as with pentobarbital. The long acting barbiturate phenobarbital selectively reduces the excitability of firing neurons and is therefore an effective anticonvulsant drug. The short and extra short drugs inhibit arousal, hence their sedative and hypnotic effects. Low doses produce sedation, drowsiness, sleep and also impaired judgement. At high doses anesthesia is produced. Very high doses can cause stupor, convulsions and death.

DrugPhenobarbital, Secobarbital, Pentobarbital, Amobarbital, Butalbital
Controlled Substance ScheduleSchedule II, III and V
Trade NamesSeconal, Nembutal, Amytal, Fiorinal, Luminal, Phenobarbital
Street NamesBarbs, downers, goofballs, reds, yellow jackets, blue devils
ClassificationDepressants/sedative-hypnotic
DependenceHigh/moderate
Method of AdministrationSwallowed or injected
Physical AppearanceTablets, capsules, liquid (injectable), white powder
Approximate Detection Time in UrineShort acting 1 day – Long acting 2 to 3 weeks
Clinical Effects or SymptomsConfusion, slurred speech, drowsiness, deep sleep, coma, respiratory depression

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse BenzodiazepinesBenzodiazepines

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

Among this group of drugs, the most prominent is Valium. Benzodiazepines are used therapeutically as so-called minor tranquilizers. Doses between 2.5 and 10mg produce a calming effects. Drug addicts utilize Valium in high doses to counter the excitatory effects of other drugs or as a means of inducing tranquil states. Acutely, benzodiazepine overdose may produce somnolence, confusion, seizures and coma. rarely, hypertension, respiratory depression and cardiac arrest may occur. Chronically, physical and psychological dependence occur. Sudden discontinuance of the drug may lead to anxiety, sweating, irritability, hallucination, diarrhea and seizures.

DrugChlordiazepoxide, Diazepam, Oxazepam, Lorazepam, Flurazepam, Clorazepate
Controlled Substance ScheduleSchedule IV
Trade NamesLibrium, Valium, Serax, Ativan, Dalmane, Tranxene
Street NamesTranks, downers, blues, yellows
ClassificationMinor tranquilizers, anti-anxiety sedative
DependenceModerate
Method of AdministrationSwallowed or injected
Physical AppearanceWhite or pale yellow crystalline powders, tablets, capsules, liquid (injectable)
Approximate Detection Time in Urine3 days (therapeutic dose)
Clinical Effects or SymptomsHypnotic, anti-anxiety, anticonvulsant, drowsiness, confusion, stupor, coma

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse MarijuanaCannabinoids

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

Marijuana consists of the dried leaves and flowering tops of the Cannabis sativa plant and is a source of psychoactive agents, the major one delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (D9-THC). The gastrointestinal tract and the respiratory system rapidly absorb this drug after oral or inhalation routes of ingestion. The drug is extensively and rapidly metabolized and can be detected in the urine within a couple of hours and for as long as several days after use. Regular users report feelings of euphoria, hallucinations and relaxed inhibitions.

DrugMarijuana, Hashish, hashish Oil
Controlled Substance ScheduleSchedule I
Trade Names
Street NamesGrass, pot, joint, weed, ragweed, thias sticks, columbian, sinsemilla, acapulco gold, ace, hash, lebanese blond, nepalese fingers, black afghan
ClassificationHallucinogen
DependenceModerate
Method of AdministrationSwallowed or smoked
Physical AppearanceDry crushed leaves (marijuana), hand-rolled cigarettes (joints), hard chunks of resin of various colors (hashish), dark viscous liquid (hashish oil)
Approximate Detection Time in Urine1 to 2 joints – 2-3 days. Chronic use or more than 5 joints per day – 14 to 18 days. Oral ingestion – 1 to 5 days.
Clinical Effects or SymptomsHallucinations, euphoria, relaxed inhibitions

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse Cocaine

Cocaine

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

Cocaine is a central nervous system stimulant. It usually appears in the form of a fine crystal-like powder, although it can come in larger pieces called rocks. It may be injected, snorted or smoked as free base. The effects of the drug begin within minutes and peak within 15 to 20 minutes. The effects include dilated pupils, increase in blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate and body temperature. The dangers associated with cocaine use vary depending on how the drug is taken, the dose and the individual. Feelings of restlessness, irritability, anxiety and sleeplessness are reported by some regular users. Even low doses of cocaine may create psychological problems. use of high doses over prolonged periods may lead to paranoia, which includes hallucinations of touch, sight, smell and taste.

DrugCocaine
Controlled Substance ScheduleSchedule II
Trade Names
Street NamesCoke, snow, nose candy, toot, crack, stardust, flake, white lady, blow, cola, bolivian rock, mother of pearl
ClassificationStimulant/local anesthetic
DependencePossible/high
Method of AdministrationSniffed, swallowed or injected
Physical AppearanceOdorless, white crystalline powder with bitter numbing taste
Approximate Detection Time in Urine2-4 days
Clinical Effects or SymptomsEuphoria, motor and verbal hyperactivity, mood elevation, inflated self esteem, grandiose delusions

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse MethadoneMethadone

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

Methadone is a non bicyclic drug, which binds competitively with morphine receptors in the brain. Although it can become addictive, the effects are less the those of equivalent concentrations of heroin. Thus, administration of methadone to heroin addicts allows them to experience the effects of heroin but in a modulated manner. A gradual lowering of the dose reduces the physical dependence, however addiction to methadone can also occur. Methadone is also used as a pain medication.

DrugMethadone
Controlled Substance ScheduleSchedule II
Trade NamesDolophine, Methadone
Street NamesDolly
ClassificationStimulant/local anesthetic
DependenceHigh
Method of AdministrationSwallowed or injected
Physical AppearanceWhite crystalline powder, tablets, liquid (injectable)
Approximate Detection Time in Urine3 days
Clinical Effects or SymptomsEuphoria, drowsiness

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse EcstasyMDMA-Ecstasy

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

MDMA is 3,4-methlenedioxymethamphetamine. It was originally manufactured as a weight loss product, but was never marketed because of its side effects. The white powder/solid is supplied in the form of capsules or tablets which are easy to counterfeit, which in turn leads to contaminated or substituted products being sold as ecstasy and a true ‘buyers beware’ market. MDMA effects last 3 to 6 hours and the doses are often ‘piggy-backed’ leading to cases of severe overheating and cardiac emergencies. Depression, anxiety, disruption of sleep and paranoia have been reported to occur days or weeks after use. Symptoms of toxicity can include confusion, agitation, hallucinations, seizures, hyperpyrexia, coma and hypertension. large doses can cause malignant hypertension.

Drug(MDMA – Ecstasy) Methylene dioxy methamphetamine
Controlled Substance ScheduleSchedule II
Trade NamesMDMA
Street NamesHug drug, Ecstasy, XTC, clarity, essence, adam
ClassificationStimulant/psychedelic
DependencePossible/high
Method of AdministrationSwallowed
Physical AppearanceTablets or capsules
Approximate Detection Time in Urine24 to 72 hours
Clinical Effects or SymptomsShort term: Euphoria, Empathy, reduction of inhibition, hyperthermia. Long term: selective and permanent brain damage, confusion, depression

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse OpiatesOpiates

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

Opiates are drugs such as heroin, codeine and physical morphine, which can produce a very high physical and/or psychological dependence by users. Feelings of euphoria, analgesia drowsiness and respiratory depression are reported by users.

DrugMorphine, Heroin, Codeine, Hydromorphone, Hydrocodone
Controlled Substance ScheduleSchedule I, II, III,  V
Trade NamesMorphine Sulphate, Codeine, Dilaudid, Vicodin, Lortabs
Street NamesM, morp, miss emma, smack, junk, horse, H, gum, dust, mexican brown, china white, schoolboy juice, dillies, S’s, No. 2’s No. 4’s Percs
ClassificationNarcotic analgesic
DependenceMorphine-high, Heroin-high. Codeine-moderate, hydromorphone-high
Method of AdministrationSwallowed or injected
Physical AppearanceWhite, brown or black powder, liquids (injectable), tablets, capsules
Approximate Detection Time in Urine72 hours
Clinical Effects or SymptomsEuphoria, analgesia, drowsiness, respiratory depression

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse PhencyclidinePhencyclidine

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

Phencyclidine is almost seen as a drug of abuse. It is a dissociative drug. It has numerous effects on a variety of different neural pathways and hence a wide variety of symptoms. Because of its actions, clinically acute manifestations vary from depression to euphoria and can induce catatonia, violence, rage and visual hallucinations. Abuse of this drug can lead to hyperventilation, tachycardia, shivering, seizures, coma and death. PCP was brought to market in the 1950s as an anesthetic pharmaceutical drug but was taken off the market in 1965.

DrugPhencyclidine
Controlled Substance ScheduleSchedule II, III
Trade Names
Street NamesPCP, angel dust, killer weed, supergrass, hog, peace pill
ClassificationHallucinogen, dissociative anesthetic
DependenceHigh
Method of AdministrationSmoked, swallowed or injected
Physical AppearancePills, powders of various colors, white crystalline powder
Approximate Detection Time in Urine2 to 8 days
Clinical Effects or SymptomsPsychedelic reaction, hallucinations, catatonia, combativeness

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse PropoxyphenePropoxyphene

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

Propoxyphene is an analgesic drug which has very similar pharmacologic properties to morphine. A major cause of drug related deaths is Propoxyphene overdose either alone or in combination with CNS depressants like barbiturates and alcohol. Toxic symptoms are similar to those seen with opiate overdoses. Examples: respiratory depression, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, pulmonary edema and coma.

DrugPropoxyphene
Controlled Substance ScheduleSchedule II, III, V
Trade NamesDarvon, Darvocet
Street Names
ClassificationNarcotic, analgesic, opioid
DependenceHigh
Method of AdministrationSwallowed
Physical AppearanceCapsules, tablets of various sizes and colors, white powder
Approximate Detection Time in Urine6 hours to 2 days
Clinical Effects or SymptomsAnalgesic, euphoria, intoxication

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse Club DrugsClub Drugs

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

Often known as date rape drugs because of their ability to heavily sedate their victims. Feelings of being separate from one’s body and environment; impaired motor function.

DrugFlunitrazepam, GHB, Ketamine
Controlled Substance ScheduleSchedule V, schedule I, schedule III
Trade NamesFlunitrazepam, Rohypnol, Ketamine
Street NamesFlunitrazepam: forget-me pill, Mexican Valium, R2, roach, Roche, roofies, roofinol, rope, rophies.
GHB: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate: G, Georgia home boy, grievous bodily harm, liquid ecstasy, soap, scoop, goop, liquid X.
ClassificationTranquilizers, sedative
DependenceHigh
Method of AdministrationSwallowed
Physical AppearanceTablet or powder (often dissolved in alcohol)
Approximate Detection Time in Urine3 to 8 hours
Clinical Effects or SymptomsSedation; muscle relaxation; confusion; memory loss; dizziness; impaired coordination, drowsiness; nausea; headache; disorientation; loss of coordination; memory loss.

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse LSDHallucinogens

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

These drugs cause altered states of perception and feeling, with hallucinations and often have a persisting perception disorder associated with them.

DrugLSD – Lysergic acid diethylamide
DrugMescaline
DrugPsilocybin
Controlled Substance ScheduleSchedule I
Trade Names
Street NamesLSD-acid, blotter, cubes, microdot yellow sunshine, blue heaven. Mescaline-Buttons, cactus, mesc, peyote. Psilocybin-Magic mushrooms, purple passion, shrooms, little smoke.
ClassificationHallucinogen
DependenceHigh
Method of AdministrationSwallowed or injected
Physical AppearanceTablet or powder (often dissolved in alcohol)
Approximate Detection Time in Urine3 to 8 hours
Clinical Effects or SymptomsIncreased body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure; loss of appetite; sweating; sleeplessness; numbness, dizziness, weakness, tremors; impulsive behavior; rapid shifts in emotion, paranoia.

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse OxycodoneSynthetic Opiates and Morphine Derivatives

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

Fentanyl and Oxycodone are analgesic drugs which have very similar pharmacologic properties to morphine.

DrugFentanyl
DrugOxycodone
Controlled Substance ScheduleSchedule I
Trade NamesFentanyl: Actiq, Duragesic, Sublimaze.
Oxycodone: Tylox, Oxycontin, Percodan, Percocet:
Street NamesFentanyl: Apache, China girl, China white, dance fever, friend, goodfella, jackpot, murder 8, TNT, Tango and Cash.
Oxycodone: Oxy, O.C., oxycontin oxycet, hillbilly, heroin, percs.
ClassificationNarcotic, analgesic, opioid
DependenceHigh
Method of AdministrationSwallowed or injected
Physical AppearanceTablet or powder
Approximate Detection Time in Urine3 to 18 hours
Clinical Effects or SymptomsAnalgesic, euphoria, intoxication

Link: Drugs facts from Drug Free World

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We have been in the drug testing industry for many years. Our challenge is to help minimize drug abuse in the workplace and to help parents understand how to test their loved ones and keep them away from drugs.

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