Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

Compiled below are the clinical effects or symptoms of drug abuse. Each table explains how the major classes of abused drugs can be diagnosed just by looking at the way these drugs are used and abused. The drug groups listed include Amphetamines, Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines, Cannabinoids, Cocaine, Methadone, MDMA-Ecstasy, Opiates, Phencyclidine, and Propoxyphene.

Common Drugs of Abuse Quick Reference Chart


Alcohol

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

Enjoying alcohol in moderation may not be bad for you, it has health benefits that could prolong your life. Overuse of alcohol as an escape route for social, personal or career pressures may result in alcoholism. Abuse of alcohol, or consumption of more alcohol than the body can handle, can lead to liver damage.

Drug: Alcohol, ethyl alcohol, ethyl glucuronide.
Controlled Substance Schedule: None.
Trade Names: Numerous.
Street Names: Liquor, beer, and wine.
Classification: Depressant-high, stimulant-low.
Dependence: High.
Method of Abuse: Swallowed.
Physical Appearance: Liquid.
Detection Time in Urine: Approx 3 to 80 hours.
Clinical Effects or Symptoms; Anxiety, euphoria, general discontent, guilt, or loneliness, nausea, vomiting, blackout, dizziness, shakiness, craving, or sweating.

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse for AmphetamineAmphetamines

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

Amphetamines are a potent central nervous system stimulant with high abuse potential. They produce an initial state of euphoria followed by restlessness, agitation, irritability and sometimes extreme paranoia. Tolerance develops rapidly, physical dependence, and psychological dependence is very high. Amphetamines are used in the treatment of obesity, attention disorder, hyperactivity, and narcolepsy, but because of high abuse potential, the use of these compounds is a last resort in these treatments.

Drug: Methamphetamine, Amphetamine.
Controlled Substance Schedule: Schedule II.
Trade Names: Desoxyn, Dexedrine, Biphetamine, Adderall.
Street Names: Uppers, pep pills, bennies, moth, crank, speed, meth, crystal, dexies, hearts, whites, black beauties.
Classification: Central nervous system stimulants.
Dependence: Possible/high.
Method of Abuse: Swallowed or injected.
Physical Appearance: Coarse powders, crystals, “chunks,” capsules, or tablets of various sizes and colors.
Detection Time in Urine: Approx 24 to 48 hours.
Clinical Effects or Symptoms: Palpitations, tachycardia, hypertension, restlessness, dizziness, insomnia, loss of appetite, and hallucinations.

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse BarbituratesBarbiturates

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

There are a variety of these sedative-hypnotic drugs. However, all are derivatives of barbituric acid.  Depending on the derivation, the particular drug may be long-acting as is phenobarbital or short-acting as with pentobarbital. The long-acting barbiturate phenobarbital selectively reduces the excitability of firing neurons and is, therefore, an effective anticonvulsant drug. The short and extra short drugs inhibit arousal, hence their sedative and hypnotic effects. Low doses produce sedation, drowsiness, sleep and also impaired judgment. Anesthesia is likely at high doses. Very high doses can cause stupor, convulsions, and death.

Drug: Phenobarbital, Secobarbital, Pentobarbital, Amobarbital, Butalbital.
Controlled Substance Schedule: Schedule II, III and V.
Trade Names: Seconal, Nembutal, Amytal, Fiorinal, Luminal, Phenobarbital.
Street Names: Barbs, downers, goofballs, reds, yellow jackets, blue devils.
Classification: Depressants/sedative-hypnotic.
Dependence: High/moderate.
Method of Abuse: Swallowed or injected.
Physical Appearance: Tablets, capsules, liquid (injectable), white powder.
Detection Time in Urine: Approx Short-acting 1 day – Long acting 2 to 3 weeks.
Clinical Effects or Symptoms: Confusion, slurred speech, drowsiness, deep sleep, coma, respiratory depression.

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse BenzodiazepinesBenzodiazepines

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

Among this group of drugs, the most prominent is Valium. Benzodiazepines are used therapeutically as so-called minor tranquilizers. Doses between 2.5 and 10mg produce a calming effect. Drug addicts utilize Valium in high doses to counter the excitatory effects of other drugs or as a means of inducing tranquil states. Acutely, benzodiazepine overdose may produce drowsiness, confusion, seizures, and coma. Rarely, hypertension, respiratory depression, and cardiac arrest may occur. Chronically, physical and psychological dependence occurs. Sudden discontinuance of the drug may lead to anxiety, sweating, irritability, hallucination, diarrhea, and seizures.

Drug: Chlordiazepoxide, Diazepam, Oxazepam, Lorazepam, Flurazepam, Clorazepate.
Controlled Substance Schedule: Schedule IV.
Trade Names: Librium, Valium, Serax, Ativan, Dalmane, Tranxene.
Street Names: Tranks, downers, blues, yellows.
Classification: Minor tranquilizers, anti-anxiety sedative.
Dependence: Moderate.
Method of Abuse: Swallowed or injected.
Physical Appearance: White or pale yellow crystalline powders, tablets, capsules, liquid (injectable).
Detection Time in Urine: Approx 3 days (therapeutic dose).
Clinical Effects or Symptoms: Hypnotic, anti-anxiety, anticonvulsant, drowsiness, confusion, stupor, coma.

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse MarijuanaCannabinoids

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

Marijuana consists of the dried leaves and flowering tops of the Cannabis sativa plant and is a source of psychoactive agents; the principal one is delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (D9-THC). The gastrointestinal tract and the respiratory system rapidly absorb this drug after oral or inhalation routes of ingestion. The drug is quickly and extensively metabolized and can be detected in the urine within a couple of hours and for as long as several days after use. Regular users report feelings of euphoria, hallucinations and relaxed inhibitions.

Drug: Marijuana, Hashish, Hashish Oil.
Controlled Substance Schedule: Schedule I.
Trade Names:
Street Names: Grass, pot, joint, weed, ragweed, thias sticks, Columbian, sinsemilla, Acapulco gold, ace, hash, Lebanese blond, Nepalese fingers, black afghan.
Classification: Hallucinogen.
Dependence: Moderate.
Method of Abuse: Swallowed or smoked.
Physical Appearance: Dry crushed leaves (marijuana), hand-rolled cigarettes (joints), hard chunks of resin in various colors (hashish), dark viscous liquid (hashish oil).
Detection Time in Urine: Approx 1 to 2 joints – 2-3 days. Chronic use or more than five joints per day – 14 to 18 days. Oral ingestion – 1 to 5 days.
Clinical Effects or Symptoms: Hallucinations, euphoria, relaxed inhibitions.

CocaineClinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse Cocaine

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

Cocaine is a central nervous system stimulant. It usually appears in the form of a fine crystal-like powder, although it can come in larger pieces called rocks. It may be injected, snorted or smoked as free-base. The effects of the drug begin within minutes and peak within 15 to 20 minutes. The symptoms include dilated pupils, increase in blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate and body temperature. The dangers associated with cocaine use vary depending on how the drug is used, the dose and the individual. Some regular users report feelings of restlessness, irritability, anxiety, and sleeplessness. Even low doses of cocaine may create psychological problems. Use of high doses over prolonged periods may lead to paranoia, which includes hallucinations of touch, sight, smell, and taste.

Drug: Cocaine.
Controlled Substance Schedule: Schedule II.
Trade Names:
Street Names: Coke, snow, nose candy, toot, crack, Stardust, flake, white lady, blow, cola, Bolivian rock, mother of pearl.
Classification: Stimulant/local anesthetic.
Dependence: Possible/high.
Method of Abuse: Sniffed, swallowed or injected.
Physical Appearance: Odorless, white crystalline powder with a bitter numbing taste.
Detection Time in Urine: Approx 2-4 days.
Clinical Effects or Symptoms: Euphoria, motor, and verbal hyperactivity, mood elevation, inflated self-esteem, grandiose delusions.

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse MethadoneMethadone

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

Methadone is a non-bicyclic drug, which binds competitively with morphine receptors in the brain. Although it can become addictive, the effects are less the those of equivalent concentrations of heroin. Thus, administration of methadone to heroin addicts allows them to experience the impact of heroin but in a modulated manner. A gradual lowering of the dose reduces the physical dependence; however, addiction to methadone can also occur.

Drug: Methadone.
Controlled Substance Schedule: Schedule II.
Trade Names: Dolophine, Methadone.
Street Names: Dolly.
Classification: Stimulant/local anesthetic.
Dependence: High.
Method of Abuse: Swallowed or injected.
Physical Appearance: White crystalline powder, tablets, liquid (injectable).
Detection Time in Urine: Approx 3 days.
Clinical Effects or Symptoms: Euphoria, drowsiness.

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse EcstasyMDMA-Ecstasy

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

MDMA is 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. It was initially manufactured as a weight loss product but never marketed because of its side effects. The white powder/solid comes in the form of capsules or tablets which are accessible to counterfeit, which in turn leads to contaminated or substituted products. MDMA effects last 3 to 6 hours and the doses are often ‘piggy-backed’ leading to cases of severe overheating and cardiac emergencies. Depression, anxiety, disruption of sleep and paranoia have been reported to occur days or weeks after use. Symptoms of toxicity can include confusion, agitation, hallucinations, seizures, hyperpyrexia, coma, and hypertension. Large doses can cause malignant hypertension.

Drug: MethyleneDioxyMethamphetamine (MDMA – Ecstasy).
Controlled Substance Schedule: Schedule II.
Trade Names: MDMA.
Street Names: Hug drug, Ecstasy, XTC, clarity, essence, Adam.
Classification: Stimulant/psychedelic.
Dependence: Possible/high.
Method of Abuse: Swallowed.
Physical Appearance: Tablets or capsules.
Detection Time in Urine: Approx 24 to 72 hours.
Clinical Effects or Symptoms: Short-term: Euphoria, Empathy, reduction of inhibition, hyperthermia. Long-term: selective and permanent brain damage, confusion, depression.

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse OpiatesOpiates

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

Opiates are drugs such as heroin, codeine, and morphine, which can produce a very high physical and or psychological dependence by users. Users report feelings of euphoria, analgesia drowsiness, and respiratory depression.

Drug: Morphine, Heroin, Codeine, Hydromorphone, Hydrocodone.
Controlled Substance Schedule: Schedule I, II, III,  V.
Trade Names: Morphine Sulphate, Codeine, Dilaudid, Vicodin, Lortabs.
Street Names: M, morp, miss Emma, smack, junk, horse, H, gum, dust, Mexican brown, china white, schoolboy juice, dillies, S’s, No. 2’s No. 4’s Percs.
Classification: Narcotic analgesic.
Dependence: Morphine-high, Heroin-high. Codeine-moderate, hydromorphone-high.
Method of Abuse: Swallowed or injected.
Physical Appearance: White, brown or black powder, liquids (injectable), tablets, capsules.
Detection Time in Urine: Approx 72 hours.
Clinical Effects or Symptoms: Euphoria, analgesia, drowsiness, respiratory depression.

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse PhencyclidinePhencyclidine

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

Phencyclidine is almost as a drug of abuse. It is a dissociative drug. It has numerous effects on a variety of different neural pathways and hence a wide range of symptoms. Because of its actions, clinically acute manifestations vary from depression to euphoria and can induce catatonia, violence, rage and visual hallucinations. Abuse of this drug can lead to hyperventilation, tachycardia, shivering, seizures, coma, and death. PCP was brought to market in the 1950s as an anesthetic pharmaceutical drug but discontinued in 1965.

Drug: Phencyclidine.
Controlled Substance Schedule: Schedule II, III.
Trade Names:
Street Names: PCP, angel dust, killer weed, Supergrass, hog, peace pill.
Classification: Hallucinogen, a dissociative anesthetic.
Dependence: High.
Method of Abuse: Smoked, swallowed or injected.
Physical Appearance: Pills, powders of various colors, white crystalline powder.
Detection Time in Urine: Approx 2 to 8 days.
Clinical Effects or Symptoms: Psychedelic reaction, hallucinations, catatonia, combativeness.

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse PropoxyphenePropoxyphene

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

Propoxyphene is an analgesic drug which has very similar pharmacologic properties to morphine. A primary cause of drug-related deaths is Propoxyphene overdose either alone or in combination with CNS depressants like barbiturates and alcohol. Toxic symptoms are similar to those seen with opiate overdoses. Examples: respiratory depression, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, pulmonary edema, and coma.

Drug: Propoxyphene.
Controlled Substance Schedule: Schedule II, III, V.
Trade Names: Darvon, Darvocet.
Street Names:
Classification: Narcotic, analgesic, opioid.
Dependence: High.
Method of Abuse: Swallowed.
Physical Appearance: Capsules, tablets of various sizes and colors, white powder.
Detection Time in Urine: Approx 6 hours to 2 days.
Clinical Effects or Symptoms: Analgesic, euphoria, intoxication.

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse Club DrugsClub Drugs

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

Club drugs are often known as date rape drugs because of their ability to heavily sedate their victims. Feelings of being separate from one’s body and environment and impaired motor function.

Drug: Flunitrazepam, GHB, Ketamine.
Controlled Substance Schedule: Schedule V, schedule I, schedule III.
Trade Names: Flunitrazepam, Rohypnol, Ketamine.
Street Names: Flunitrazepam: forget-me pill, Mexican Valium, R2, roach, Roche, roofies, roofinol, rope, rophies.
GHB: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate: G, Georgia home boy, grievous bodily harm, liquid ecstasy, soap, scoop, goop, liquid X.
Classification: Tranquilizers, sedative.
Dependence: High.
Method of Abuse: Swallowed.
Physical Appearance: Tablet or powder (often dissolved in alcohol).
Detection Time in Urine: Approx 3 to 8 hours.
Clinical Effects or Symptoms: Sedation; muscle relaxation; confusion; memory loss; dizziness; impaired coordination, drowsiness; nausea; a headache; disorientation; loss of coordination; memory loss.

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse LSDHallucinogens

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

These drugs cause altered states of perception and feeling, with hallucinations and often have a persisting perception disorder associated with them.

Drug: LSD – Lysergic acid diethylamide.
Drug: Mescaline.
Drug: Psilocybin.
Controlled Substance Schedule: Schedule I.
Trade Names:
Street Names: LSD-acid, blotter, cubes, microdot yellow sunshine, blue heaven. Mescaline-Buttons, cactus, mesc, peyote. Psilocybin-Magic mushrooms, purple passion, shrooms, little smoke.
Classification: Hallucinogen.
Dependence: High.
Method of Abuse: Swallowed or injected.
Physical Appearance: Tablet or powder (often dissolved in alcohol).
Detection Time in Urine: Approx 3 to 8 hours.
Clinical Effects or Symptoms: Increased body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure; loss of appetite; sweating; sleeplessness; numbness, dizziness, weakness, tremors; impulsive behavior; rapid shifts in emotion, paranoia.

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse OxycodoneSynthetic Opiates and Morphine Derivatives

Clinical Effects or Symptoms of Drug Abuse

Fentanyl and Oxycodone are analgesic drugs which have very similar pharmacologic properties to morphine.

Drug: Fentanyl.
Drug: Oxycodone.
Controlled Substance Schedule: Schedule I.
Trade Names: Fentanyl: Actiq, Duragesic, Sublimaze.
Oxycodone: Tylox, Oxycontin, Percodan, Percocet.
Street Names: Fentanyl: Apache, China girl, China white, dance fever, friend, goodfella, jackpot, murder 8, TNT, Tango, and Cash.
Oxycodone: Oxy, O.C., oxycontin oxycet, hillbilly, heroin, percs.
Classification: Narcotic, analgesic, opioid
Dependence: High
Method of Abuse: Swallowed or injected
Physical Appearance: Tablet or powder
Detection Time in Urine: Approx 3 to 18 hours
Clinical Effects or Symptoms: Analgesic, euphoria, intoxication

Link: Drugs facts from Drug Free World