Stuff you should know about substance abuse, the symptoms, and properties.
Substance abuse is often painful to detect and understand. We have put together a list of commonly abused drugs showing their effects and symptoms. Moreover, to help with links to tests that detect these drugs.
Cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine is an analyte for the determination of tobacco usage. You can detect the level of cotinine detected in urine, but it is influenced by a variety of factors including; the type of tobacco used, filtered vs. nonfiltered cigarettes, how heavily the individual inhaled the smoke, the length of time an individual chewed, the number of cigarettes smoked per day. These variables make it difficult to determine precisely how much an individual smokes or uses tobacco, however, the testing methodology does have the precision to differentiate applicants exposed in a smoking environment from the tobacco user. The cotinine test identifies nicotine use. We estimate 25% of smokers or 5% of the total population fail to report potent correct smoking status.
Ethanol, the metabolite of alcohol is commonly used to screen for recent alcohol consumption. Peak blood levels usually occur within 40-70 minutes on an empty stomach. Food in the stomach can decrease the absorption of alcohol. The liver metabolizes ethanol to acetaldehyde. The average urine/blood ratio is 1.35. The average saliva/blood ratio is 1:20. Symptoms of intoxication in the presence of low alcohol levels could indicate a severe acute medical problem requiring immediate attention. The half-life and effectiveness of certain drugs (e.g., barbiturates) are increased with the presence of ethanol. A test for Alcohol abuse is available here.
Amphetamines are potent central nervous system stimulants with high abuse potential. They produce an initial state of euphoria (high) followed by restlessness, agitation, irritability and sometimes extreme paranoia. Tolerance develops rapidly and, although physical dependence has not been proved, psychological dependence is very high. Amphetamines are prescribed primarily for the treatment of obesity, attention disorder, hyperactivity, and narcolepsy, but, because of the high abuse potential, these compounds are used as a last resort in these treatments. A test for Amphetamine substance abuse is available here.
There is a variety of these sedative-hypnotic drugs. However, all are derivatives of barbituric acid. Depending on the derivation, the particular drug may be long-acting, as is phenobarbital, short-acting, as is pentobarbital or ultrashort-acting, as is the case with thiopental. The long-acting barbiturate phenobarbital selectively reduces the excitability of rapidly firing neurons and is, therefore, everyday anticonvulsant drug. The short and ultra-short drugs inhibit arousal, hence their sedative and hypnotic effects. Low doses produce sedation, drowsiness, sleep and also impaired judgment. At high doses, anesthesia is produced. Very high doses can cause stupor, convulsions, and death. A test for Barbiturates substance abuse is available here.
Among this group of drugs, the most prominent is Valium. Benzodiazepines are used therapeutically as so-called minor tranquilizers. Doses between 2.5 and 10 mg produce a calming effect while higher doses produce muscle-relaxing effects. Drug addicts utilize Valium in high doses to counter the excitatory effects of other drugs or as a means of inducing tranquil states. Acutely, benzodiazepine overdose may produce somnolence, confusion, seizures, and coma. Rarely, hypertension, respiratory depression, and cardiac arrest may occur. Chronically, physical and psychological dependence occurs. Sudden discontinuance of the drug may lead to anxiety, sweating, irritability, hallucination, diarrhea, and seizures. A test for Benzodiazepines substance abuse is available here.
Marijuana consists of the dried leaves and flowering tops of the Cannabis sativa plant and is a source of psychoactive agents, a major one being delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol ( Delta 9-THC). This drug is rapidly absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract and the respiratory system after oral or inhalation routes of ingestion. When smoked, the drug is rapidly metabolized and detected in the urine within a couple of hours and for as long as several days after use. Regular users report a feeling of euphoria, hallucinations, and relaxed inhibitions. A test for Marijuana substance abuse is available here.
Cocaine is a central nervous system stimulant. It usually appears in the form of a fine crystal-like powder, although it can come in larger pieces called rocks which are the free-base form of the drug and is injected, snorted or smoked. The effects of the drug begin within minutes and peak within 15 to 20 minutes. These include dilated pupils, increase in blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate, and body temperature. The dangers associated with cocaine use vary depending on how the drug is taken, the dose, and the individual. Some regular users report feelings of restlessness, irritability, anxiety, and sleeplessness. Even low doses of cocaine may create psychological problems. Use of high doses of cocaine over a prolonged period may lead to paranoia, commonly called cocaine psychosis, which includes hallucinations of touch, sight, taste, and smell. A test for Cocaine substance abuse is available here.
Methadone is a non-bicyclic drug which binds to morphine receptors in the brain. Although it can become addictive, the effects are less than those of equivalent concentrations of heroin. Thus, administration of methadone to heroin addicts allows them to experience the effects of heroin but in a modulated manner. A gradual lowering of the dose reduces the physical dependence; however, addiction to methadone can also occur. A test for Methadone substance abuse is available here.
The primary use of Methaqualone is for its sedative-hypnotic properties. It also possesses anticonvulsant, antispasmodic, local anesthetic, antitussive, and weak antihistamine actions. Oral administration leads to rapid and complete absorption of the drug with peak concentrations within 2 to 3 hours. Tolerance to some of its actions, as well as dependence, occurs such that abusive dosages can be up to six or seven times greater than those employed therapeutically. Symptoms of overdose are similar to barbiturate toxicity and produce depression with lethargy, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Unlike barbiturate overdose, muscle spasms, and convulsions can result.
Opiates are drugs such as heroin, codeine, and morphine and can produce a very high physical or psychological dependence by their users. You can test for codeine and morphine (a metabolite of both codeine and heroin), and also the metabolite of heroin. You can also test for the opiate, hydrocodone (Vicodin, Lortab), hydromorphone (Dilaudid), and oxycodone (Percodan) from a full drug screen test. Users report feelings of euphoria, analgesia, drowsiness, and respiratory depression. A test for Opiates substance abuse is available here.
Phencyclidine is exclusively used as a drug of abuse. It has numerous effects on a variety of different neural pathways, and hence a wide array of bizarre symptoms can be seen in the same patient. It’s physiological effects appear to be analgesic, anesthetic, and paradoxically, stimulating. Because of its various actions, clinically acute manifestations vary from depression to euphoria and can induce catatonia, violence, rage and auditory and visual hallucinations. Vomiting, hyperventilation, tachycardia, shivering, seizures, coma and death are also common occurrences that result from abuse of this drug. A test for Phencyclidine substance abuse is available here.
Propoxyphene is an analgesic drug which has very similar pharmacologic properties to those of opiates like morphine. A primary cause of drug-related deaths is propoxyphene overdose, either alone or in combination with depressants like barbiturates and alcohol. Results show that the symptoms are similar to those of opiate overdoses, i.e., respiratory depression, cardiac arrhythmia, seizures, pulmonary edema, and coma. A test for Propoxyphene substance abuse is available here.